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Application prospect of 5G technology in coal mine intelligence (III)

3. Application scenarios of 5G in coal mine

5G network creatively adopts network slicing technology to divide the physical network into multiple virtual networks. Each virtual network is divided according to different service requirements, such as delay, bandwidth, security and reliability, so as to flexibly cope with different network application scenarios, and ensure end-to-end performance while meeting a large number of parallel services online. Combined with 5G technology characteristics and actual requirements of coal mine, several typical application scenarios are presented as follows.

3.1 High precision real-time positioning and application service based on 5G

At present, coal mine underground positioning system is mostly based on traditional Bluetooth, ZigBee, ultra wide band and other wireless transmission technology, the positioning accuracy is not high, and the relevant infrastructure needs to be set up separately, and the real-time performance is difficult to guarantee. Based on the low delay characteristics of 5G, the development of underground positioning and application service system based on 5G network is the future development direction, which will produce underground vehicle management, mining precision promotion and other applications, and solve the real-time control and management problems of mobile equipment.

3.2 Virtual interactive application based on 5G

Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) (Figure 7) are revolutionary technologies that can completely subvert the traditional human-computer interaction content, and their application in coal mines can be expected in the future. Its application can be divided into three stages:

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Fig. 7 3D modeling, virtual presentation

(1) It is mainly used for 3D modeling and virtual display, such as the current naked eye 3D technology. Its basic requirements are 20 Mbps bandwidth + 50 ms delay, and the existing 4G + WiFi can basically meet.

(2) it is mainly used for interactive simulation and visual design, such as multi-human underground training system, whose basic requirements are 40 Mbps bandwidth + 20 ms delay, and pre5G can basically meet.

(3) it is mainly used for hybrid reality, cloud real-time rendering and virtual real integration control, such as virtual mining, collaborative operation and maintenance, etc. its basic requirements are 100 Mbps ~ 10 Gbps bandwidth + 2 ms delay, and 5G or more advanced technology is required to meet.

3.3 Remote real time control of production

Production real-time control is always the key problem of intelligent coal mining. The traditional remote control system needs multiple routes and multiple protocols to collect all kinds of sensor information to the centralized control center until it is transmitted to the remote control center. Therefore, only some functions with low real-time requirements can be realized by remote control, and the functions with high real-time requirements cannot be realized by remote control for security reasons. 5G low delay characteristics provide the basic support for the solution of this problem. The full function remote control based on 5G will be realized. Fig. 8 is the related application diagram.

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Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of multi-source decision control

3.4 Underground remote cooperative operation and maintenance

Another important application scenario of 5G underground is remote cooperative operation and maintenance (Figure 9). In the future, the intelligent degree of underground equipment will be higher and higher, and the system will be more and more complex. The traditional maintenance workers are difficult to complete the maintenance work independently, and need the help of remote experts. The audio and video information on site can be transmitted to the far end through 5G network, and the related virtual models can also be virtualized to the field equipment. Through virtual reality technology, the experts can have the same field of view and operation as the workers on site, and even use robots to replace people to complete maintenance underground.

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Fig. 9 Remote operation and maintenance scene based on 5G

3.5 Underground inspection and security

5G based positioning, high-speed data transmission and end-to-end IOT will help to achieve efficient inspection and security in the mine. Through this network, the underground equipment and personnel can be located in real time (FIG. 10), and the underground safety information can be transmitted and shared in real time. The active push function of the intelligent terminal can automatically identify other mobile terminal equipment and push relevant information on demand, so as to realize the ubiquitous perception and sharing of underground information. Compared with the traditional way of data upload and distribution, 5G mode of data utilization is more efficient, shorter delay, higher reliability and better economy.

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Fig. 10 Underground patrol based on 5G

4. Prospects

On the ground, 5G technology has provided practical solutions for low-power and wide connection scenarios of forest fire prevention, low delay and high reliability scenarios of automatic driving, multi-hotspot and high-capacity scenarios of high-definition event broadcast, etc. The combination of 5G technology with big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and virtual reality technology will also be implemented in coal mines one by one to realize real-time analysis and decision support of big data, visual remote control and digital twin

Application, hybrid reality, remote operation and maintenance services, etc.

(1) The overall network architecture should be in the form of wired backbone + 5G coverage. The optical fiber backbone ring network is used to ensure the safety and reliability of underground information transmission, and the 5G network is used to meet the requirements of underground wireless coverage and mobile transmission.

(2) The layout of 5G micro base station is optimized according to the actual roadway or working face layout to ensure coverage and reduce resource consumption.

(3) Analyze and divide the underground application scenarios, sort out the personalized requirements of different application scenarios, and logically divide the network resources according to the requirements, that is, complete the so-called "slicing".

(4) On the basis of building a good transmission platform, we should pay attention to the integration of the platform, application scenarios and advanced technologies, and solve the problems of ubiquitous perception, real-time reliable transmission, big data application and rapid development that have always plagued intelligent coal mining Intelligent decision-making, remote operation of mixed reality and other bottlenecks, to achieve underground intelligent mining and remote real-time visual control based on mixed reality.

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